Criminology_White Collar Crime

White Collar Crime

  1. Basically, White Collar Crime is committed by the people of High-Class Society.
  2. Edwin Sutherland who was an American Criminologist had invented the terms Blue Collar Crime & White Collar Crime 
  3. Definition of White Collar Crime – It is a crime committed by a person of responsibility or for possessing high social status, during the course of the occupation.
  4. Blue Collar Crime is also known as Traditional Crime whereas White Collar Crime is also known as Hidden Crime. 
  5. White-Collar Criminals are more dangerous and harmful to the Society. 
  6. Mostly, it is a nonviolent crime committed by Politicians, businessmen, and government professionals. They skillfully find loopholes in the law to hide their offenses. 
  7. Different types of White Collar Crimes are as under 
    • Wage Theft  - Wherein the Employer failed to pay the wages or salary or other benefits to employees as per the service law. Misclassification of workers. To pay less salary, etc.
    • BriberyIt means giving money, gifts or any good to other person in order to control the actions of the said other person.Police Station 
    • Cyber Crime - It involves stealing information of third parties. Fraudulently transferring money through Internet Banking.
    • Bank Fraud - It means to defraud a bank. Recent Nirav Modi and Vijay Mallya are notable cases of banking fraud. 
    • Tax FraudEvading tax by providing wrong information in tax forms or illegally transferring property in order to avoid tax. 
    • Copyright infringement, Money laundering, Changing reservation of land for achieving a personal interest, etc. 
  8. There may be various motives behind White Collar Crimes 
    • To gain power, wealth, superior position 
    • To dominate competitors, other people for survival 
  9. With the advancement of commerce and technology, the White Collar Crimes are increasing day by day.
  10. White Collar Crimes are happened due to lack of powerful laws and there is no effective machinery to control such hidden crimes 
  11. To prevent White Collar Crime there must be powerful government action against such type of crimes, there must be strict laws in the State and effective machinery for its implementation. It also needs alert and powerful opposition parties. 
  12. Case Law – Shiv Sagar Tiwari V/s. Union of India.
In this case, the Minister for Housing and Urban Development, Government of India, had allotted several shops/stalls. In this case, the SC held that the allotments were illegal and arbitrary. The SC imposed fine of Rs. 60 lacs to Minister.

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